Dried, whole or fragmented bark.
The European Medicine Agency (EMA) approves the use of Frangula bark and extracts in the treatment of occasional constipation.
Components arrive to the large intestine without being absorbed, where they are hydrolyzed and transformed into their corresponding active metabolites by the intestinal flora. These cause increased bowel movements and secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a laxative effect.
Buds, leaves and young branches.
Pycnogenol, phenolic extract from maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima Mill.).