Emollient, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. It has also demonstrated antioxidant activity.
Leaf preparations and aerial Plantain parts are mainly used to treat diseases in the upper respiratory tract.
The European Medicine Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use for the symptomatic treatment of oral and pharyngeal inflammation and dry cough.
The E Commission also recognizes its external use for inflammatory skin conditions.
Borage oil obtained from seeds and refined afterwards. An antioxidant may be added. In addition, aerial parts and borage flowers have also popularly been used.