According to the European Medicine Agency (EMA) and the ESCOP, rosemary leaf preparations and essential oil can be used orally in the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders, particularly due to liver and bile deficiencies, as well as for mild spasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Externally, they are used as aids in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, neuralgia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, either directly, or through its decoction and essential oil. It is also used to promote wound healing and as a mild antiseptic.
In folk medicine, rosemary essence is used as a scalp stimulant. Often it used as a preservative and antioxidant.
Rosemary leaf has essentially choleretic (active bile production) and cholagogue (facilitates the expulsion of retained bile in the gallbladder), liver protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Extracts exert potent antioxidant activity, comparable to that of some synthetic antioxidants.
The essential oil, topically, has circulatory stimulatory effects. It is a good antispasmodic and anticonvulsant, besides being effective as an antibacterial and antifungal against a wide number of microorganisms.
Borage oil obtained from seeds and refined afterwards. An antioxidant may be added. In addition, aerial parts and borage flowers have also popularly been used.